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Rapeseed is a herbaceous plant with lemon-yellow inflorescences that is widely used in manufacturing and the food industry. The seeds of both spring and winter rapeseed contain a record-high oil content of 50%. They also contain 30% protein, 7% fiber, and 25% non-nitrogenous substances.

Rapeseed oil is a high-quality oil with a shelf life of approximately 12-18 months. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil contains about one-third of the saturated fats found in olive oil and is naturally rich in omega oils, vitamin E, and antioxidants. A by-product of the oil is rapeseed meal, which consists of nutritious dry granules or flakes and is used for livestock feed.

Export of rapeseed oil from Russia

Despite logistical challenges due to sanctions, record volumes of rapeseed oil shipments to foreign markets were observed in 2022 — 950,000 tons compared to 802,500 tons in 2021. Russia currently ranks third among the world’s exporters of this oil after Canada and Germany. It has significant potential for rapeseed production, given favorable agro-climatic conditions and a large amount of arable land suitable for cultivation. The government actively supports the development of this sector through various initiatives and subsidies.

In recent years, Russia has invested significant funds in infrastructure projects to improve the transportation and logistics chain, including expanding railway networks, seaports, and highways.

Geography of rapeseed cultivation

Rapeseed was introduced to the territory of modern Europe only in the 13th century, where it initially gained popularity in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. By the 17th century, rapeseed had spread to Germany, where vast areas are still sown with it. In the territory of modern Russia, the active cultivation of the crop began in the early 19th century.

Climatic conditions for rapeseed cultivation

The main climatic condition for rapeseed cultivation is receiving sufficient moisture during the plant’s growing season. Preference is given to regions with high air humidity and abundant precipitation, with relatively low positive temperatures. Spring rapeseed requires 90-120 days (full ripening cycle), whereas winter rapeseed needs 60-80 days (autumn) and 90-110 days (spring period after winter).

Winter rapeseed hybrids

  • Elvis Winter Rapeseed

In 2021, the planting volume amounted to 0.55 thousand tons of seeds. The Elvis variety is an early-maturing variety with high yield potential. It is highly adaptable to worsening weather conditions. Elvis can be planted at optimal and late dates since plants develop intensively from autumn. This variety is characterized by early flowering and early maturation.

Yield potential – 45.0 c/ha. Oil content – 46-49%. Vegetation period – 260-265 days. Plant height – dwarf. Maturity group – early-maturing.

  • Mercedes Winter Rapeseed

In 2021, the planting volume amounted to 0.16 thousand tons of seeds. It is characterized by intensive and very vigorous autumn development. Under the influence of fluctuating temperatures, with an average of 15°C, Mercedes was able to form 30% more biomass compared to control samples.

Yield potential – 46.8 c/ha. Oil content – 48.4%. Vegetation period – 268 days. Plant height – medium-tall. Maturity group – mid-maturing.

  • Edimax KL Winter Rapeseed

In 2021, the planting volume amounted to 0.12 thousand tons of seeds. The feature of the Edimax KL winter rapeseed hybrid is its short stem, which contributes to plant resistance to lodging. This characteristic allows for harvesting with minimal costs by increasing the daily productivity of combines.

Yield potential – 45.0 c/ha. Oil content – 45.1%. Vegetation period – 253 days. Plant height – medium-tall. Maturity group – mid-early.

Spring rapeseed varieties

  • Jubilee Spring Rapeseed

In 2021, the planting volume amounted to 0.51 thousand tons of seeds. This variety differs from others in its large fruit size and adaptation to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. It is uniform in plant height, flowering, and ripening.

Yield potential – 42.0 c/ha. Vegetation period – 78-100 days. Max. oil content – 49.1%. 1000-seed weight – 3.6-4.5 g. Plant height – medium. Maturity group – mid-maturing.

  • Heros Spring Rapeseed

In 2021, the planting volume amounted to 0.44 thousand tons of seeds. Rapid germination and development contribute to weed suppression. A large number of pods per plant ensures consistently high yields. This variety has high resistance to lodging.

Yield potential – 34.1 c/ha. Vegetation period – 86-120 days. Max. oil content – 47.5%. 1000-seed weight – 3.0-4.9 g. Plant height – medium. Maturity group – mid-maturing.

  • Reliable Spring Rapeseed

In 2021, the planting volume amounted to 0.37 thousand tons of seeds. This variety is suitable for both fodder and grain production. It matures uniformly and almost does not lodge.

Yield potential – 21.9 c/ha. Vegetation period – 100-105 days. Max. oil content – 47.0%. 1000-seed weight – 3.5-4.0 g. Plant height – medium. Maturity group – mid-maturing.

Rapeseed Oil Production Technology

  • Rapeseed Seed Cleaning

After weighing and magnetic separation, rapeseed seeds undergo the first cleaning. The separator should remove at least 25% of the total impurities. The second cleaning is performed after drying to remove remaining impurities on separators of the same type.

  • Rapeseed Seed Drying

Seeds are dried in dryers and then subjected to mandatory cooling in special chambers with cold air ventilation. After cooling, the seeds should not exceed a temperature of 30°C.

  • Rapeseed Seed Crushing

Cleaned rapeseed seeds are crushed on five-roll mills through four passes. Crushed seeds are called rapeseed meal. The presence of whole seeds in the meal is not allowed.

  • Meal Preparation (Crushed Seed Roasting)

Crushed seed meal is roasted before pressing. To prevent a large amount of sulfur-containing substances from transitioning into the oil, roasting is done as follows: the meal is rapidly heated in an inactivator, then in subsequent roasting pans, the meal (roasted crushed seed) is dried and heated to 100-105°C. During meal drying, steam is removed naturally through exhaust pipes.

  • Meal Pressing

Continuous and uniform feeding of meal into the press is necessary for oil production without compromising its quality.

  • Primary Oil Purification

Oil obtained by pressing undergoes primary purification identical to sunflower oil. Pressed oil is collected and sent to a fuselage, then filtered in frame filter presses.

Oil Refining

Oil is usually subjected to sulfuric acid refining or bleaching with active adsorbents before alkali refining. The next step is alkali refining to remove free fatty acids. Subsequent adsorption purification removes coloring substances, phosphatides, heavy metals, oxidation products, and significantly reduces sulfur compounds.

Standards and Quality Indicators of the Product

By the Order of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology dated November 29, 2012, No. 1631-st, the interstate standard GOST 31759-2012 was implemented as the national standard of the Russian Federation from July 1, 2013.

Quality Indicators

Rapeseed contains a large amount of B-group vitamins. It has the highest choline (B4) content. There are 8 amino acids present, with the maximum amount of leucine and phenylalanine. Chemical composition analysis of rapeseed seeds indicates that they are promising oilseed raw material, competing with sunflower seeds. The sample fully complies with the requirements of the standard for unrefined rapeseed oil in terms of transparency, odor, and taste (organoleptic examination).

Physicochemical indicators meet the requirements specified in the state standard. The vitamin, fractional, fatty acid, and mineral composition of the product have been studied. The rapeseed oil sample fully complies with the standard requirements and can serve as promising raw material for the production of fat-and-oil products.

Vitamin Composition of Rapeseed Seeds

  • Vitamin D, thousand IU/kg – 2.97
  • Vitamin E, mg/kg – 18.5
  • Vitamin B1, mg/kg – 1.76
  • Vitamin B, mg/kg – 2.89
  • Vitamin B3, mg/kg – 8.86
  • Choline (B4), mg/kg – 1127
  • Vitamin B5, mg/kg – 30.5
  • Vitamin B6, mg/kg – 5.82

Chemical Composition of Rapeseed Seeds

  • Dry matter, mg/100g – 89.5
  • Crude protein, mg/100g – 22.6
  • Crude fat, % – 40.3
  • Crude fiber, % – 4.76
  • Crude ash, % – 3.89
  • Sugar, % – 5.67
  • tarch, % – 1.42
  • Water, % – 7.94
  • Protein, % – 29.6
  • Triglycerides, % – 40.5
  • Phospholipids, % – 1.46
  • β-sitosterol, % – 0.43
  • Cholesterol, % – 0

Fractional Composition of Oil

  • Total lipids, % – 99.539
  • Triglycerides, % – 99.23±0.02
  • Phospholipids, % – 0
  • β-Sitosterol, % – 0.51±0.02
  • Cholesterol, % – 0
  • Cholesterol, mg% – traces
  • Brassicasterol, mg% – 52.4±0.02
  • Campesterol, mg% – 152.6±0.02
  • Stigmasterol, mg% – 0.3±0.02
  • β-sitosterol, mg% – 352.6±0.02
  • Δ-5-Avenasterol, mg% – 12.1±0.02
  • Δ-7-Stigmasterol, mg% – 30.6±0.02
  • Squalene, mg% – 28±0.02
Наименование показателя Норма
Кислотное число 1,86 мг КОН/г
Массовая доля эруковой кислоты Менее 0,1%
Массовая доля олеиновой кислоты 64,1

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Deliveries are planned by railway.
By flexitank container – 18-21 tons
Tank-container – from 21 tons
Shipment is made from the station Blagoveshchensk Amur region.

Delivery period: 30 days


The company Black Horse plans to provide a payment extension and the payment will be made in dollars.

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